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Il est facile de souligner les aspects paradoxaux de cette situation, comme le fait Braibant , p. Les paysans.
Giri, Phelinas , p. Amin S. Bonnefond Ph. Braibant M. Paris I, 2 vol. Casswell N. Couty Ph. Copans et al. Cruise O'Brien D. Decraene Ph. Delgado Ch. Deschamps H. Dubois J. Eicher C. Gatin A. Gaulme F. Giri J. Kohler J. Lake L. Lericollais A.
Projects and Operations
Lombard J. Based on the good results of the 4 5 campaign tonnes of rice and tonnes of vegetable products , the target of producing 1. Tests on the use of fish cages have had successful results Moutta, The installation of approximately floating cages has created 1, jobs. This is particularly true for the tomato crop. The means of transferring the products to various potential consumption centres have never been properly investigated.
This promises future job opportunities. This experience would allow them to get a similar job on other sites. Priority will be given to women and children [ AfDB, It is mainly characterised by its purpose which is not profit, but the continuation of the family circle. The family circle generally includes many people from different generations. However, they may also supply local markets Cirad, The socio-economic and environmental role of family farming is finally being recognised and these farms have many supporters both among international organisations de Schutter, as well as associative forums.
It has since been refocused on West Africa in Family farming is simply reduced to subsistence economy. The policy of agropoles is based on the belief that small-scale farmers cannot rise to the challenge of feeding African countries Dagorn, Jamart, Jorand, Only intensive farming and imported technologies can. So, now that we have been successful, we are not going to turn them down. However, the proportion actually allocated to support family farming is not given. Rice yields have increased four-fold, from 1. Farmers, encouraged by economic incentive measures production and sale deregulation , quickly adopted innovative farming techniques such as transplanting and compartmentalisation of land plots, all the more so that they were quickly effective.
The percentage of people living in poverty remains high, but its severity was much lower in that area than in the rest of rural Mali Adamcsewski, The reduction in actual poverty is therefore only relative. The high natural population growth and the arrival of a new population a population of 62, in the Office du Niger area in , more than , in Adamcsewski, , in a context with limited development of new irrigated land due to funding ability, has resulted in a decrease in available land per family 7.
The aim was to raise awareness on the farmers' distress due to the lack of land, the payment of water rates and the price of expensive and poorly distributed fertilisers Kane, Because of the high fertiliser price, farmers cannot use the needed doses. This contributes to farming debt leading to disinvestments: sale of agricultural equipment, draught oxen and land plots Brondeau, This debt hinders any investment, weakens the intensification process and is the first reason for eviction.
It does not look like local farmers have been given the means to undertake any real change. The average farm size is estimated at 3. The bulk of the rice put on the market comes from a minority of prosperous farms with larger irrigated areas and often managed by non-resident employees.
Land allocations have always been temporary, and farmers are still subjected to very strict specifications. The creation of a residential lease now allows farming families to keep their homes in case of eviction. However, the most common annual farming contract CAE remains very uncertain: it can be challenged every year in case of non-payment of water rates or because of insufficient yields. This type of tenure is normally restricted to undeveloped land, but this means that land used for rain-fed crops or livestock can be transferred under these allocations.
For example, while the agreement with Libya provides for a long-term lease free of charge, the agreement concerning the Markala Sugar Project PSM involves a long-term lease with land fees which the financial value is estimated at FCFA 2,,, over the year duration of the lease.
Djire, Keita, Diawara, The lease contract between the ON and M3 SA stipulates that M3 SA can sub-let its land within the terms of the contract but can only do so once the land has been developed. Malibya, on the other hand, does not have the right to assign or rent the land it has been allocated to third parties without written agreement from the Malian party.
As such, renting or selling land plots is very common, although difficult to evaluate because of their illegal nature. A large proportion of ON land has not yet been registered with the state and requires the taking of customary rights and compensation for the holders Djire, Keita, Diawara, These investors were applying for large areas of land used by farmers and transhumant herders Djire, Keita, Diawara, N-Sukala and Tomota began to clear the land without sufficient public consultation.
Tomota cleared around ha in the same way as Malibya. Local people were not adequately informed through the public consultation required by the decree concerning the environmental and social impact studies. They said that they received no prior compensation. The project will also allocate either rice or sugarcane fields, at their choice, to people who have lost their arable land. However, compensation amounts are not regular incomes for indefinite durations, and longer-term impacts remain to be seen.
For instance, no allocation is made in the Malibya project and no responsibility is taken with regards to local communities being evicted from their village: local municipalities have had to take charge in managing resettlements and potential land disputes.
At least 16 villages were displaced Brondeau, ; Adamczewski, Compensation initially valued at 24 million Euros has been reduced to Euros and has not been paid in full Adamczewski, Some fields located in villages near the project were partly covered with rubble extracted when digging the canal. Moreover, facilities for CGC, the Chinese company in charge of the construction of the infrastructure, were located on the main transhumance route for livestock Brondeau Since then, water is regularly released in the area located at the end of the canal at PK40, flooding parts of Tangana.
Local villagers have developed an infrastructure for irrigated crops on the area flooded during the release of water. These initiatives have been condemned by management at the Office du Niger. The same figures appear in the agreement with M3 SA.
Centre de la CEDEAO pour le DГ©veloppement du Genre | Bureau du Commissaire Genre
The water supply priority given to Malibya as Sosumar Djire, Keita, Diawara, , as part of the agreement granted by the Malian state Brondeau, , is likely to generate competitive if not conflictual relationships with crop and livestock farmers and fishermen downstream of the project as well as with other countries bordering the Niger River Brondeau, ; Adamczewski, ; Hertzog and al, The question is whether these water rights given to the Libyan project can be transferred to other operators. These lower flows are largely due to the silting and proliferation of invasive plant species Scom, Their actions are relayed by the media in Bamako.
The first hearing was held in February but no decision has yet been made. Each has its limitations and strengths in terms of food security. Food security is therefore considered as part of a food system, i. On the other hand, the need to ensure a regular food supply at a national level and maintain sustainable prices for urban populations in particular is understandable.
It includes production, storage, processing, distribution and transformation of agricultural raw materials. It seems obvious that the development of agribusiness in the Office du Niger area should allow a steep increase in production required to supply food at national and macro-regional levels. With a few exceptions, the contracts and agreements for large investments in the ON area make no reference to the end market for the projects produce. For example, the recitals of the agreement between Malibya and the government of Mali quote food self-sufficiency as one of its objectives, but the contract makes no mention of the destination of the produce.
How can a project contribute to food self sufficiency if produce is sold on export markets? Moreover, there are issues regarding the technical feasibility and sustainability of these large agricultural projects as their water requirements have been very poorly assessed through botched or unavailable impact assessments Clavreul,
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