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Contents:


  1. Original Research ARTICLE
  2. Alan Beale's Core Vocabulary Compiled from 3 Small ESL Dictionaries (21877 Words)
  3. The Aetiology of Deep Venous Thrombosis | SpringerLink
  4. Learning from Sherlock
  5. A review of the most effective medicinal plants for dermatophytosis in traditional medicine

He, therefore, literally never takes anyone at face value. He looks over each individual he encounters from head to toe and sizes them up accordingly. Rather than judging a book by its cover, Holmes prefers to read between the lines. You did not know where to look, and so you missed all that was important. Holmes is similarly skeptical about those who hastily make up their minds about a case, no matter how obvious a particular conclusion may appear to be at first blush.

It may seem to point very straight to one narrative, but if you shift your own point of view a little, you may find it pointing in an equally uncompromising manner to something entirely different. In his quest for the truth, Holmes was not merely an early adopter, but also a pioneer of forensics—the collection and scientific testing of physical evidence to support or refute a hypothesis.

Thus, Holmes is renowned for his focus on hard evidence, however trivial it may seem. While to lesser investigators Holmes often appears, like a magician, to be pulling his theories out of thin air, the fact is he was loath to jump to any conclusion without sufficient information—a key lesson for claims managers.

I cannot make bricks without clay. Of course, Holmes is famous for employing the power of deduction, which he essentially defines as reasoning in reverse. They can put those events together in their minds, and argue from them that something will come to pass. There are few people, however, who, if you told them a result, would be able to evolve from their own inner consciousness what the steps were that led up to that result. Is that not the challenge facing many adjusters, fraud investigators, and claims managers? This in itself implies…a possession of all knowledge, which even in these days of free education and encyclopedias is a somewhat rare accomplishment.

Not so rare, perhaps, in these days of the Internet and mobile devices! Indeed, the naturally keen deductive powers of the original Sherlock Holmes likely would have been exponentially enhanced with the Internet, a tablet, and some advanced predictive modeling software at his disposal.

However, data and technology are not necessarily all-encompassing when it comes to an investigation. Human intuition still has its place. It is usually in unimportant matters that there is a field for observation, and for the quick analysis of cause and effect, which gives the charm to an investigation. It is your commonplace, featureless crimes that are really puzzling, just as a commonplace face is the most difficult to identify.

For example, fungal infections are the fourth leading skin diseases worldwide. In , million people suffered from fungal skin infections. Secondary infection, deafness, tinea, and skin lesions are some of the complications due to fungal infections [2]. Dermatophytes attack keratinized tissues, such as nail, hair, and stratum corneum, causing dermatophytosis [1]. Dermatophytosis is very common and can be life-threatening for the elderly and immunocompromised people. The highest prevalence of this disease is seen in people between the ages of years.

Dermatophytes cause skin scaling, create gray loops in the skin, and cause hair loss and loosening and nail deformities [3]. Dermatophytes have three genera: Microsporum, Tricophyton, and Epidermophyton, whose reservoirs are soil, animals, and humans [4]. The cloning process of dermatophytes is associated with the release of proteolytic enzymes and spontaneous stimulation of the host inflammatory responses, and causes dermatophytosis or tinea ringworm.

Inflammatory symptoms at the infection site include redness, swelling, and alopecia. Swelling causes transmission of infection to other parts of the body that causes circular lesions. The severity of infection due to dermatophytes depends on age, surrounding temperature, humidity level, and health and social conditions [5]. Different genera of dermatophytes have many phenotypic and genotypic similarities that make their detection challenging.

Colony testing, microscopic examination of morphology, genotypic tests, and in some cases, detection of nutritional requirements, temperature tolerance, and urease production are used to detect dermatophytes [6]. Some parts of the body, such as nail subdistal region and area between the fingers, are more prone to dermatophytosis because they are exposed to the fungus in the long-term and provide certain factors, such as sugar and pH, that are required for the fungus [5].

Dermatophytes can induce increased immediate, delayed, or mediated cell susceptibility. In infected people with a normal immune system, response to increased susceptibility is induced within 30 days and is spontaneously recovered after 50 days. Dermatophyte distribution is different across the world [5]. In the past half-century, Tricophyton rubrum has been the most common dermatophyte, and in poor developing countries, Mycosis is endemic and affects a large number of children.

Epidermophyton floccosum was common during two decades, i. In eastern and southern Europe, low quality of life has caused increased infection with animal-friendly dermatophytes.


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As well, urbanism, contacts, and travels have led to increased prevalence of T. Medicinal plants have long been used to treat different diseases in developed and developing countries [10] - [13]. In recent years, medicinal plants have also attracted much attention because their uses have had many benefits, such as decreased expenses and fewer side effects [14] - [17]. Use of plant-based products to fight fungal, bacterial, and parasitic infections has also been considered as an effective approach [7] [8]. Moreover, certain measures can be taken to produce drugs by identifying the active compounds of the plants [18] [19].

The antifungal effects of some plants, such as ginger, Narcissus tazetta, Myrtus communis, dill, cilantro, garlic, onions, henna, oak, black beans and thyme, on fungal infections have already been demonstrated. Flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, citronellol , geraniol, thymoquinone, and phenolic compounds are some of the antifungal or other microbial active compounds found in these plants [20] [21]. After exclusion of duplicates and irrelevant articles by checking article topics, 54 articles were selected.

Original Research ARTICLE

After reviewing abstracts of the remaining articles, 23 articles were included in this study. Fungal diseases are known as mycoses, according to the National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases. Mycoses can affect various parts of the body, including body hair, lungs, nervous system, nails, and skin. Fungal skin infections usually involve itching, skin discoloration, and changes in skin texture in the affected area. Certain herbs are known as fungicides, or agents that destroy fungi and their spores. Since fungal infections are often tenacious and difficult to eliminate, several different medicines may be necessary to provide therapeutic relief.

On the other hand, the routine fungicides like azoles have several side effects. According to findings of the study herein, Azadirachta indica, Capparis spinosa, Anagallisavensis, Juglans regia, Inula viscosa, Phagnalon rupestre, Plumbago europaea, Ruscus aculeatus, Ruta chalepensis, Salvia fruticosa, Artemisia judaica, Ballota undulate, Cleome amblyocarpa, Peganum harmala, Teucrium polium, Aegle marmelos, Artemisia sieberi, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Heracleum persicum, Mentha spicata, Nigella sativa, and Rosmarinus officinalis are the most effective plants on dermatophytes that have been identified to date.

Various form of extracts and essences of these plants were found to have growth inhibition or killing effect on dermatophytosis agents and their pathogenicity. Most of the plants belong to family Lamiaceae. All the plants have very good effects against dermatophytosis agents in either minimum inhibitory concentration test MIC or in minimum fungicidal concentration test MFC , and other tests. Even some clinical dermatophytosis isolates show drug resistance from these plants. Table 1 shows further information about the botanical names, studied doses, and effects of these plants.

According to the findings of the present study, A. Overall, many of the sulfuric compounds, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and anthocyanins in the plants cause antifungal effects. Here, in this review article, we touched on the active compounds of the reported plants according to phytochemical investigations. Eugenol is the main antifungal compound of O. Tetranortriterpenoid has been demonstrated to be main antifungal compound present in A.

Moreover, rutin, tocopherols, carotenoids, and vitamin C have been confirmed to be the antimicrobial and antifungal compounds of C. Glycosidic saponin is the antifungal active compound of A. A study on C. In addition, C. Limonene, 2,4-di-tetr-butyl, and p-cymene were the most important antifungal compounds of T. Moreover, 2-isopropenyl- 4-methyloxa-cyclopenta[b]anthracene-5,dione, imperatorin, plumbagin, and b-sitosterol glucoside are some of the main antifungal compounds of A.

Furthermore, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, and tannins are the main antifungal compounds of P. Investigations have demonstrated that the main active antifungal compounds present in J. Carvacrol and thymol are the most important active compounds of P. Azoles and flavonoids, especially sesquiterpenes, are the most important antifungal compounds of I. Carvacrol and thymol are the active compounds of S. The active compounds of P. Certain active compounds, such as vitexin, rutin, isoquercitrine, nicotiflorin, and schaftoside, are present in R. Thymoquinone with antifungal activity has been shown to be one of the important active compounds of N.

Additional studies have demonstrated that cuminaldehyde and pinenes were among the active compounds of C. Meanwhile, the active compounds of R. As can be seen, most of the effective components of these plants are from phenolic compounds, which besides having antifungal activities have mostly antioxidant properties [64] - [69].

Alan Beale's Core Vocabulary Compiled from 3 Small ESL Dictionaries (21877 Words)

Antioxidants are beneficial compounds which are effective against a wide variety of diseases [70] - [75]. These group of plants also may have antidotal activity [82]. Due to a high prevalence of dermatophytosis and high speed of acquiring this disease around the world, especially in low-income regions and developing countries, it is necessary to investigate these drugs as well as pharmaceutical and antifungal agents with anti-dermatophytes effects.

Indeed, there are life-threatening side effects due to these chemical drugs. The findings of this study may have many implications, such as in the development of new drugs or in paving the way to conduct additional studies, particularly related to mechanism. Common medications used to treat fungal infections, especially those with systemic use, have many proven side effects. There is also drug resistance in many fungal species to commonly used drugs, and this resistance has grown mostly in recent years. Medicinal plants are valuable sources of effective antifungal and therapeutic agents which can be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including fungal infections.

These plants have a broad use in traditional medicine and complementary medicine, in the unprocessed form, and in modern medicine, either in processed or purified active substance form. Further research studies are required for developing new drugs from these valuable sources. All of the authors have participated in manuscript preparation, Manuscript review, Design, Literature search, Manuscript editing.

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The Aetiology of Deep Venous Thrombosis | SpringerLink

All authors read and approved the final version of manuscript. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Copyright BioMedPress. HTML Total Statistics from Dimensions.

9 Examination of Varicose Veins WhiteKnightLove

Sepahvand, A. A review of the most effective medicinal plants for dermatophytosis in traditional medicine.

A Critical, Historical and Epistemological Survey

Biomedical Research and Therapy , 5 6 , Keywords: Dermatophytosis Medicinal plants Traditional medicine. The botanical name,studied dose, and effect of medicinal plants effective on dermatophytosis. Download figure Enlarge figure. LD Morrow. Management of feline dermatophytosis in the rescue shelter environment.


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    Learning from Sherlock

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    A review of the most effective medicinal plants for dermatophytosis in traditional medicine

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