- Publications for year 2008
- Neuerwerbungen im Juni 2010
- Conscientious objectors in prison
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- International Bibliography of Historical Sciences: v. 75 - PDF Free Download
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Vance, Laurence M. Blight, David W. John Brown , Cherry Lane, Jacobs, Cook , New Haven: Yale University, Genovese, Eugene D. Hogan, Wesley C. Joseph, Peniel E. King, Martin Luther, Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr. King, William S. Kly, Y. Levine, Ellen S. London, Samuel G.
McKissack, Patricia C. Meier, August and Elliott M. Nash, Gary B. Nokes, R. Nobody ever helps me into carriages or over mud puddles or gives me any best place! Robertson, David M. Smith, Mark M. Theoharis, The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks , Boston: Beacon, Moses, Washington, Booker T.
Woodson, Carter G. Paul: University of Minnesota, Gobson Editors , Biko Lives! Martin Jr. Newton , New York: Random House, Blain, Keisha N. Cone, James H. Farmer, Ashley D. Kelley, Robin D. McDonald, Peter D.soevvesralxamo.ml/map14.php
Publications for year 2008
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, Baton Rouge: House of Songhay, Robinson, Cedric J. Spencer, Robyn C. Van Deburg, William L. Williams] Tyson, Timothy B. Bowie, Katherine A. Koller, Jeffery W. Maxwell, Goyer, K. Gramsci, Antonio, Prison Notebooks Vols. Those who protest injustice are people of true merit. When the prison gates are opened, the real dragon will fly out. Madison: University of Wisconsin, Talese, Persecuted for refusing to serve in the Nazi army. An autobiography , Copenhagen: Gramma, Kariuki, I.
Nerenberg, Ellen V. Solomon, Jr. Vassen, Robert D. Adams, R. A supplement to the Pacifist handbook , Philadelphia: Peace Section, Amnesty International, Out of the margins: the right to conscientious objection in Europe , London: Anderson, Gary M. Avant, Deborah. Axelrad, Albert S. Balancie, J-M. Barbey, C.
Baskir Lawrence M. Beattie, P. Bernstein, J. Bet-El, Ilana R. Paul: Paragon House, Blum, Albert A. No, really. Brett, R. Brown, Frederick L. Kohn, and Michael D. Caverley, Jonathan D. Cawthra, G. Kraak, G. Choi, S. Clifford, J. Garry and Samuel R. Spencer, Jr. Cohen, Eliot A. Corcoran, Amy F. Cowie, Jim A. Middle East Book Review, Drescher, John M.
- gesund gekocht (German Edition);
- Find in ZORA.
- Computer-aided Drawing and Design.
Dolan, Edward F. Eberly, Donald J. Sherraden, The Moral Equivalent of War? Ellis, Barbara G. Engram, J. Field, G. Flynn, George Q. Flynn, Lewis B. Hershey: Mr. Friedman, Robert P. Grab, Alexander. Graaf, Michael, et al. Graham, John W. Grantstein, J. Gale, Thomas, G. Gray, Wilbur E. Hammer, Leonard M. Heath, Gordon L. Heisey, M. Hershey, Lewis B. Hinde, Robert A. Hirshbiel, Henry H. Horowitz, Michael C. Niederlande , Frankfurt: Haag und Herchen, Jolly, Ruth A. Keairns, Y.
Tauris, Kennedy, Thomas C. Kessler, Jeremy K. Kestnbaum, M. Kidron, Peretz, Refusenik! Kotwall, B. Krehbiel, Nicholas A. Krebs, Ronald R. Larson, Zelle A. Lecoin, Louis, De prison en prison , Antony Seine, Lee, Dwight R. Fromme, McNeil, J. McNitt, William H. Marcus, Emily N. Michel D.
Millan Garrido, Antonio, La objecion de conciencia al servicio militar y la prestacion social sustitutoria: Su regimen en el derecho positivo Espanol , Madrid: Tecnos, Miller, Melissa and Phil M. Mulligan, Casey B. Navarro Floria, Juan G. Noone, Michael F. Oosthuizen, Anthony J. Palomino, Rafael, Las objeciones de conciencia: Conflictos entre concienciay le en el derecho Norteamericano , Madrid: Montecorvo, Pepper, Rollin E.
Richardson, Len, Sixty Years a Christadelphian , Russell, R. Smith, T. Oscar and Derrick A. Rutherford, Robert S. Sawicki, Nadia N. Seidler, Franz W. Sherraden, Michael W. Silva, Ruth C. Simon, Rita J. Smith, Solom C. Stigers, Katy Morrow and Mark R. Stoker, Donald J. Blanton, and Frederick C. Swalm, E. Publishing, Toney, Raymond J. Heidebrecht, and Gerhard I. Friesen, n. Wallenberg, Harry A. A study of the treatment of conscientious objectors in the United States during World Wars I and II and its relation to the concept of freedom , Libertarian, War Resisters International, Conscientious objection in Israel: an unrecognised human right , London, Wilson, Peter H.
Department of Defense, Yoder, Anne M. Zuses, Rachel S. Cart land, Fernando G. Geary, James W. Graybill, R. Lehman, James O. Ruane, Michael E. Allatini, Rose [A. Daniel, Baldwin , November , New York, Dutton, Bell, E. Bibbings, Lois S. Cook, Brocklesby, John H. Chamberlain, W. Cooper, John F. Edmund Harvey, M.
Daniels Early, Frances H. Evans, John H. Finney, Torin R. Barker, Friedrich, Ernst, Krieg dem Kriege! War Against War! Oorlog aan den Oorlog! Brown, New York: Harper, Gullace, Nicoletta F. Hartzle, J. Holland, H. The conscientious objectors of New Zealand and the process of their conversion , Wellington: Maoriland Worker, Hunter, Ernest E.
Jannaway, Frank G. Jones, L. Juhnke, James C. Kennedy, David M. Kniss, Lloyd A. Kohls, Gary G. Kornweibel, Theodore Jr. Kraft, Barbara S. Lane, Winthrop I. Leatherman, Noah H. Martin, Mick, England, Arise! Allen and Unwin, Meyer, Ernest L. Miller, Ernest H. Milne, A. Moore, Howard W. Moran, John J. Moskos, Charles C. NCLB, Why should there be an amnesty? Nearing, Scott, defendant. Nichols, Beverley, Cry Havoc! Peet, Hubert W. Peterson, H. Shaw, Amy J. Simons, H. Sprunger, Keith L. Standing, Arthur C. Stoltzfus, Duane C. Huebsch, Thomas, Is conscience a crime?
Stokes, Tomlinson, Augustus J.
Voth, Albert C. Waldner, Jakob S. Walker, Joyce A. It only takes one to refuse Sieg Heil , Allen, E. Anderson, Richard C. Arnett, Edward M. Axford, Roger W. Bennett, Scott H. Siegrist, and Daniel P. Umbel, Bonhoeffer the Assassin? Boisen, Anton T. July-August Brubaker, John W. Buerger, David John, et al. Bussey, Barry W. Coffin, Lesley L. Cookson, J. Cornell, Julien D. Cottrell, Robert C.
Dalfiume, Richard M. Dasenbrock, J. Henry, To the beat of a different drummer: A decade in the life of a World War 2 conscientious objector, Winona: Northland, Davies, A. Doss , Tampa: Pacific Press, Foote, Will J. Franzen, David W. Frazer, Heather T. Hancox, Phil, Cavalry or Calvary?
Hirsch, Charles B. Hockley, Robert L. Hopkins, Mary R. Hunsberger, Willard D. Joad, C. Kellam, John R. Kelley, Ray R. Klassen, A. Klassen, John C. Lifton, Robert J. Lonsdale, Kathleen, et al. Muller, Eric L. Nunnally, Joe Frederick, I was a C. Owen, Douglass J. Pescor, Michael J. Rammerstorfer, Bernhard, Unbroken Will. The Extraordinary Courage of an Ordinary Man. The Story of Leopold Engleitner. New Orleans: Grammaton, Reeves, George B. Richards, Edward C. Satterthwait, Charles S. Sibley, Mulford J. Sibley and Philip E.
Spring, Ernest C. Swain, Henry, Why Now? Tarasoff, Koozma J. Thomas, Norman and Bertram D. Toews, John A. Van Dyck, Harry R. Wadge, Herbert W. Wallace, Charles E. Wilding, Percy G. Wilhelm, Paul A. Thomas Taylor, Wilson, Robert E. Anderson, Terry H. Baez, Joan, Sr. Barsocchini, Robert J. Berrigan, Daniel, S. Bingham, Howard L and Max Wallace. Evans, Castellani, John J. Culhane, Claire, Why is Canada in Vietnam?
Neuerwerbungen im Juni 2010
Curry, G. Daly, James A. Dellapenna, Joseph W. Epp, Frank H. Franklin, H. Grace, Thomas M. The present study would not have been possible without their work.
- International Bibliography of Historical Sciences: 2006: v. 75.
- Publisher Series: \.
- Hyperbolic Geometry (Springer Undergraduate Mathematics Series).
- The Devils Tree (1).
- The Arise of the National Idea and National Extremism in Post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe.
- muhetogofy.ga: Januari .
It was never a genre of subject Brotherhood of matter. Jerusalem before Netherlandish. Four the Grotto of the Empty architectures could be sacrally charged. An anonymous group portrait Nativity, c. Oil of c. Nativity in Bethlehem, flanked by members of an Amsterdam pilgrim confraternity. As Karl Birkmeyer once argued, many early Netherlandish paintings relied upon architectural views precisely to mark the presence of an invisible reality. Instead, its connection to the Netherlandish present is a bodily one.
Here architecture, as figura, uniquely collapses time. Roman antiquity remained a steadfast source of pictorial forms and architectural exempla. Prints of ruins illustrated Rome and allegorized its loss. The distinction Vitruvius drew in the Ten Books between the tragic, comic, and satiric scenes of the theatre was familiar to patrons as well as to artists in the sixteenth century. Van Noyen, court architect to the Hapsburgs in Brussels, isolated the buildings on papers that could be assembled into a frieze reconstructing the baths, treating them as vast specimens of purely archaeological import.
Cock himself, meanwhile, had drawn and etched the ruins of the Colosseum and the Capitoline hill as early as , and went on to issue subsequent series in and Further, they raised the possibility of locatable architecture alone 9 Introduction evoking temporality or loss, even when no discernable storia, or even history, nestled 0.
Conscientious objectors in prison
Biblical architecture. Two famous paintings of the Tower of Babel executed by Pieter Prentenkabinet, Bruegel in the s, for example, handled the mythical building as an independent subject, which by its very complexity captured the linguistic dissimulation heralded by its conceit. Introduction 0. Subsequent art history Palatine, Vredeman has never fitted smoothly into histories that posit a sharp divide between Netherlandish and Flemish architectural traditions, or between real and unreal architecture.
Riegl had, in fact, lectured on Vredeman in a course of They do this allegorically. With a nod to Walter Benjamin and Paul de Man, Grootenboer suggests that perspective challenges humanist ideas of symbolism based upon either identity or homology between material and image. Functioning as a rhetoric, that is, perspective comes to enchant pictorial discourse once again. The idea of rhetoric which de Man defined as the study of tropes and figures engages elements of art theory which Vredeman himself used on the sixteenth-century stage—structures like the figure, the allegory, and even the sign.
The last subject, specifically, emerged as a coherent discipline for the first time in the sixteenth century, and, attendant to Vitruvius, found itself embracing the practices of the theater as well as the architectural treatise. This borrowing was not simply an appropriation of form; physical cities like Antwerp lifted the more immaterial strategies of visual manipulation and rhetorical address for the design of streets and buildings, and consistently recalled the perspectival shape of the stage.
In early modern Europe, the fables of Parrhasius and Zeuxis mapped twin paths to architectural or artistic invention: one could mimic the seen world, or make something from various parts of it. Even with a minor artist like Vredeman, professional success in art and architecture hinged upon the continual re-invention of conventional motifs like, say, the antique orders. Iconoclasm and the early modern artist It was precisely in the later sixteenth century that theologians—and increasingly, artists—began to write about how values like disfigurement and even anachronism could both plague and inspire visual imagery.
This is potentially dangerous in a Christian framework, for it portends a departure from the natural order of things. In the 14 Introduction 0. The godly visage was problematic Heemskerck, The because it gave a countenance to the sacred, imparting specificity, as it were, to Destruction of the something omniscient. Indeed, as Joseph Koerner has noted, iconoclasts disavowed Temple of Ashtoreth, the true idea of the image, the idea of representation—they scorned the idea that any Chemosh, and poetic figura points away from itself to some exterior value.
In this they returned the Prentenkabinet, artwork, perhaps, to a truly early Christian aesthetic—one of effacement and difference Leiden. When this aesthetic became the subject of independent panel paintings, as we shall see in Chapter 4, the obdurateness of the fashioned thing became the very theme of the artwork. Iconoclasm always retained an architectural quality in the Netherlands. Netherlandish iconoclasts saw their actions as the restructuring of a wrong world.
This is where Vredeman began his career. The painter Heinrich Vogtherr, an author Vredeman read, illustrated a model-book in , republished in , , , and , explaining his own motivation in Reformation events:. God has brought about a noticeable decline and arrest of all these subtle and liberal arts [subtilen und freyen Kunsten], whereby numbers of men have been obliged to withdraw from these arts and to return to other kinds of handicraft [hantwerckt].
They float and gesture on the blank page awaiting deployment. Turning away from images of holy personages, then, such an art was often forced to deal in pictures which were not only simple and overtly wrought in themselves, but which went even further, to become patterns for conspicuously produced things. Vredeman modeled chairs, footstools, and tables Figure 0. Like Vogtherr, Vredeman turned out of choice or circumstance to new venues for his skill techne in art and architecture. The Lutheran image controversy was several generations old by the time Vredeman began practice.
The more interesting issue in the air in Antwerp during the later sixteenth century and surely in Prague when Vredeman visited in the late s, as we shall see was how the image itself 16 Introduction 0. Etching, H. Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam. Indeed, the term repetitie was used by Dutch rhetoricians in the sixteenth century to describe both practices and re-stagings of single plays the repetition of the dramatic form did not presage the work, it was the work. Rather than providing a description of urban space as a collection of architectural features, Vredeman, like his contemporary William Shakespeare, instead seems to have understood the civic street as a potential stage for human drama.
Such works appeared at a time when authorities both Catholic and Reformed in Antwerp demonstrated increasing sensitivity to maintaining urban order and beauty through the promulgation of ordinances and edicts. Intended chiefly as a guidebook for artists, the Perspective adopted the connection between vision, architecture, and the evocation of depth as intrinsic. In the treatise urban structures themselves provided the means for the process of sight to be expressed. One of its most celebrated features 18 Introduction is its supposed insistence that multiple viewpoints—something that can easily be imagined as a part of the life of the early-modern city—can be accommodated on paper or panel.
The tension between these twinned roles of scaffold and mirror, always at the heart of perspective itself, became in the sixteenth century a source of pictorial anxiety out of which Vredeman was able to fashion his whole reputation. By being purely supplementary, Kant claimed, such features contrastingly indicated what was intrinsic to the aesthetic object. For Kant, the division between work and by-work was quite fixed. In structural terms, of course, columns are anything but accessory to the functioning of a building. Among other things, they keep up the roof, and in this respect differ significantly from the other two parerga: the garment and the frame.
These have never been particularly stable distinctions when one considers the overlaps of media and production techniques in early modern Europe, particularly after the Reformation. Yet souls who find themselves truly dispossessed tend to regard the romanticization of the nomad as a modish affectation; real exile tends to be calamitous for those who withstand it. The following chapters will argue, however, this was not via a distancing from older, late-medieval models of collective artifact production, but through an engagement with and deepening of them.
One final note: although this book is about a single artist, Hans Vredeman de Vries, it is intended as something other than a life-and-work monograph. Sophie-Petra 20 Introduction Zimmermann and Heiner Borggrefe have already made crucial inroads towards that task in their indispensable publications. Ben Jonson1 Fertile and even prodigal as nature may be, it has not invented everything.
Hampton Court Palace. Rather, he summarized the changing role printed images had come to play in the practice of building over the course of the sixteenth century. In the Netherlands the interests of engravers, draughtsmen, and even dealers frequently clashed. This was particularly problematic for images of the built environment, the kind of work this chapter will examine. In the Middle Ages, architectural instruction relied upon a very private corpus of visual templates. Building techniques remained shrouded in guild conditions of secrecy, and, more significantly, of anonymity.
As Mario Carpo has suggested, it was the mnemonic facility of the medieval architect that was most threatened by the effusion of print. Guilds banned sketch-making for journeymen traveling far from home, insuring that, before woodcut illustration, models of famous buildings existed chiefly in the minds of those who had seen structures firsthand. The work of design had been democratized, for better or for worse. If not of dog catchers and plagiarists, central to both critics was the assumption that the onset of reproducible templates changed the notion of invention completely.
The collaboration of architects and printmaking in early modern Europe has, of late, attracted considerable interest, with the most important result being that Antwerp publishers like Philips Galle and Hieronymus Cock have come to be recognized as crucial for shaping the themes, as well as the distribution, of reproducible art on paper.
Many traditional benchmarks of achievement, of professional failure, and success, were undermined. To see precisely how this took place we need to begin not with a print or a building however, but with a painting. It is the first of a series of paintings executed around Three disciples converse at a table in a shaded corner. Martha, far away from this main scene, appears through a doorway on the extreme right, speaking to an old man near a kitchen fireplace.
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Outside, on the immediate right, at the stoop of a long colonnade, a youth draws water from a well. A deeply recessed vault reveals an arched pavilion in the middle right; here, a turbaned man slowly plods towards the foreground. Ebullient grotesque decoration splays over the ceiling and walls, covering the windows, the shutters, and 1. In effect, they vie with the New Testament story for spatial sive perspectivae, no.
Albertina, Vienna. As a sequence of frames and surfaces—doorway, colonnade, window, hearth—the composition vigorously denies any central focus, drawing us instead into fictive corners, across elaborate thresholds, out through mullioned, painted glass windows. Oil on canvas, National Gallery, London. Protestants found in this story an easy allegory of ideal Christian behavior—the Word Mary , not church works Martha , legitimized as the path to salvation.
Rather, Vredeman splits the panel between the vault at right and the figures seated at left, so that the space is united by the box-like composition of the room and the tunneling archway at center. At its heart, the picture is empty; Jantzen marveled at how this painting managed to look deserted, even as it stayed ornamentally abuzz. We are accustomed in Italian paintings to follow perspective to the site of action or history at a vanishing point. But in the Hampton Court picture there is none, we find only a turbaned, indecipherable human blotch. In moving among the different spaces—foreground, background, ceiling, floor—the viewer faces not just the didactic outcome of the decision making of the Biblical story, but the tension inherent in making that decision.
This figure was obliterated sometime in the late-sixteenth century. When the Martha painting was signed by Vredeman in it was marked in two separate places along the architecture, once atop a Moses bust at right in Latin, and a second time, in Greek script, below the roundel landscape at the center. The figures sit awkwardly, immaterial, and tenuous. The apostles, the kitchen, the two sisters seem not to belong here, and, it seems, perhaps neither do we.
The Hampton Court picture is slashed by calligraphic ornament and lines, but is, in a sense, dominated by only one: the tunneling arch which vanishes into nothing. In the s, while still living in Mechelen, Vredeman began to design prints for painters and tapestry makers. The drawing eventually used for the Martha panel, now in Vienna, formed part of a series of 24 architectural views, accompanied only by a title page with a dedication to Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, then cardinal of Mechelen. He had introduced an entirely new set of themes into the Antwerp print market and taken subjects pioneered in Italy and southern Germany—sophisticated sheets of ornament, Roman ruins, landscape—and put them before the eyes of an unprecedentedly vast public.
Between and his death in , Cock maintained a stable of Italian engravers such as the Mantuan expatriate Giorgio Ghisi, who furnished him with reproductions of antique sculpture. The nearby university of Leuven 32 no. Unbuilt architecture in the world of things provided an eager market for theological texts, and, at least initially, church authorities in charge of monitoring doctrinal content rarely interfered. Although paper, typically one of the largest costs in book production, remained particularly expensive in Antwerp,29 print publishers were often quite bold in the nature and scale of their undertakings.
By , the printing firm headed by French expatriate Christoffel Plantin was turning out texts on no less than 22 presses—books devoted to everything from philology, horticulture, and astronomy, to mythology, travel descriptions, and law. The professionalization of these small industries remained a model for early engravers and printers. Ursula, c. Lead-tin alloy, 9. Collection Amsterdams Historisch Museum.
Engraved images had, of course, long elevated the selling price of books. Cock, as discussed in Chapter 3, issued designs such as cartouches in elaborate, autographed suites. In general, the print process in which Vredeman participated, even when under the support and control of a single patron like Granvelle and a publisher like Cock, remained a diffuse and largely businesslike affair. Architecture, perspective, and landscape filled this need. In some cases materials from a variety of different series would be brought together in a single luxury artifact, bound in calfskin or fabric.
Scenographiae, In Antwerp the idea of a single artist exerting a firm hold over his entire publication, sive perspectivae, no. Pen copyright, and sale remained quite rare, since guild regulations insisted upon firm separ- and wash on paper, ations between the tasks of figurschnyder and drukker. First, an initial design would be produced, usually by a painter. This composition, in ink or chalk on paper, would be engraved, etched, or carved into copper or wood by another craftsman.
Next, a printer would press the resulting onto wet paper, and leave it to dry. Finally, a publisher, who often financed all of these activities, would collate and distribute the image to local sellers and dealers abroad. These tasks were not, it seems, generally conducted under one roof.
Around mid-century, Antwerp publishing firms probably resembled offices rather than workshops, closer to hushed libraries than bustling places of craft. In Antwerp the various activities connected with printing were scattered among the small shops of the Lombardenvest, a neighborhood known for the sale of paintings and textiles. Several of the copperplates in the same inventory, etched by the van Doetecums, survive today reused as painting supports. Initially engravers of maps, the van Doetecums occupied a shop near the Arenbergstraat,44 where they developed a mysterious technique of engraving.
Their etchings mimicked the appearance of engravings— much more time-consuming to make and accordingly priced. Seemingly engraved, this plate was, in fact, etched, a subtlety early collectors would have adored. As engravers the van Doetecums would have received double the pay normally allotted to draughtsmen. In doing so, they supplied the tangible stuff that permitted print production to occur. Plates, once etched, often became the most highly valued assets of a publishing firm: we know that in October , Cock was able to pay more than half the deposit on a new house with a collection of his copperplates and other works of art.
Unlike preliminary drawings, engraved plates were protected by guild price standards, since plates without presses remained relatively worthless. Hendrick Goltzius, for example, saw his asking prices rise in the s, after he developed a way to simulate etched line with a pen and paper rather than vice versa. Countless intellectual property disputes raged as prints became more profitable, as well as doctrinally inflammatory.
In May , the Guild of St. Luke hived off an entire sub-section for printers in order to shield members from potential Inquisition charges. In a court case from , meanwhile, the block cutter Willem van Parys was charged with heresy for several anti-Inquisition prints he had produced.
When interrogated, van Parys, like any good employee under duress, passed the buck, in this case to his boss, a minor publisher named Hans van Bauhuysen. As van Parys claimed, it was van Bauhuysen the Inquisition wanted, since van Parys had merely cut the images, not designed them. Why then should he be held accountable for what they described? The two processes of drawing and engraving were categorically separate, he argued, and responsibility for the invention of the image lay squarely with the former. Apparently the Inquisition agreed. Van Bauhuysen, the publisher, was arrested and sentenced to six years of civic exile, while van Parys—like the van Doetecums, an engraver—was released on bail.
It was a cognitive act, wherein drawing contributed to a repository of compositional ideas. The florid signatures Vredeman added to his early preparatory drawings are explicit acknowledgments of his role Figure 1. For the Aux Quatre Vents—and by association Vredeman—this division of labor became conspicuously established as 37 Unbuilt architecture in the world of things the dominant schema for Antwerp. Virtually no documents have survived regarding 1. But it appears with one Hans Vredeman de exception 51 that, much like other draughtsmen, he never engraved his own designs in these early years.
Instead, Vredeman entered into a very collaborative enterprise in which his reputation was contingent upon the coordinated skills of others. Vries assiduously copied these out schreef nacht en dagh vlijtich uyt , the large one as well as the small one. From thereafter he returned again to Mechelen, to a painter. Coecke van Aelst was a tapestry designer and antiquarian, as well as, briefly, a court painter to Emperor Charles V. He had traveled to Constantinople on diplomatic missions and become famous for designing festival decorations in Antwerp.
Coecke may also have been, for a short period, the master of Pieter Bruegel the Elder the painter married his daughter, Mayeken , overseeing a large workshop in Brussels in the s which specialized in replicas of his own works, alongside painted versions of Italian prints. Clearly, seeing the books, if Van Mander is to be believed, was a revelatory experience for 39 Unbuilt architecture in the world of things 1. Antwerp, , title page.
Universiteitsbibliotheek, Amsterdam. Universiteitsbibliotheek, Ghent. Like Serlio, he afforded woodcut illustrations relative predominance in the tract Figure 1. The few printed treatises on architecture available in the Low Countries hitherto eschewed this kind of visual exegesis; Leon Battista Alberti had famously refused to illustrate his own manuscript treatise on building, De re aedificatoria, insisting that architectural principles could be more effectively understood when read aloud, in the form of a dialogue;64 in this, he followed the original format of Vitruvius, who omitted diagrams, it was thought, in order to keep his audience more select, to keep architecture a discourse between enlightened practitioners and patrons.
It explained how the Vitruvian dialogue was thrown open to anyone viewing its pages:. These were drawn less on visual experience of specific Roman monuments than on older printed images. Die Inventie served as a book of patterns more than an explication of theory. In fact, Coecke van Aelst admitted that he was not exactly clear what Vitruvius is describing at times.
Coecke van Aelst sought to bring this notion to a body of intellectuals and 42 Unbuilt architecture in the world of things 1. These consist in two aspects: carpentry, and explanation [or deliberation]. Carpentry is itself traditional and familiar practise of using the hands to bring forth works, using whatever materials are necessary. Explanation is a faculty whereby built things are set out, a knowledge of the correct proportions which they contain. His difficulty lay not so much in Secondo libro di architettura Paris, providing a direct translation for the antique words as in establishing a distinction between , fol.
Unbuilt architecture in the world of things hierarchically related—the former was by far the more important. In Antwerp in August , for example, a carpenter from Utrecht named William van Noordt was accused of making designs for capitals in the city cathedrals without being a stonemason. In his defense, he called a series of witnesses from the local guilds: Philips Lammekens and Pieter Teels, master masons at the Onzelievevrouw cathedral; Rombout de Drijvere, a clynsteker, or carver of foliage for capitals, Rombout van den Loocke, a carpenter and stone cutter, and Pieter Frans, a younger Antwerp mason.
These individuals cited examples of local work by noncraftsmen: an Italian painter named Tommasso Vincidor, who had designed the Buren castle, and a goldsmith, Jan van Nijmegen, who had geordonneert laid out, designed several different houses in Antwerp. Rather, architecture consisted in an understanding of all of these practices.
The prints, however, suggested that the domain of the Dutch architect might be the domain of the image, or more precisely, the domain of images. Indeed, in a second court case from , the sculptor Willem van den Broeke was sued by the city of Antwerp for producing drawn designs patronen , which could not be built. As the Antwerp cases suggest, designs most often took the form of drawing—discrete manual utterances. That which is signified is the thing proposed; that which signifies is the demonstration, expressed through professional precepts. But it instates no aesthetic hierarchy per se.
The court case in Antwerp saw Willem van den Bloecke rely on precisely this distinction in drafting his worthless design for the new town hall. Coecke van Aelst—a translator and a designer of engravings—thus introduced a new division of labor between invention and building, much like that imputed to printmaking. He sharply honed the idea of what the architect actually does; that is, he onderwerpt, he designs. This was a resolutely modern distinction: architects today rarely make buildings—they make pictures of buildings.
First, there is the fundamental contribution of van Aelst and Serlio towards making books a vector for architectural discourse in the Netherlands. Particularly through the dissemination of illustrations, both authors introduced the notion that architecture was not just about marble and stone, but also ink and paper. We will return to this point in Chapter 3. In making his images Vredeman is not preparing to build, he is really building; the image is the project. In fact, William Ivins once suggested that it was specifically the technique of crosshatching that prevented sixteenth-century print from ever imitating the world entirely.
By the sixteenth century, this apparent coupling had a long history. Brunelleschi, a goldsmith, had begun to experiment with perspective chiefly as a means of surface decoration. For architects, perspective was one of the three modes described by Vitruvius for describing a building. Scenographia joined ichnographia plan and orthographia elevation as a vehicle through which architectural inventions were given form.
Although scenographia could be used in the planning of a building or theatre, Vitruvius claimed, it differed from the other types of projection in that it could also designate a subject unto itself—in fact, in Book II of his manuscript Vitruvius deemed perspective of use not for built architecture, but chiefly for its representation. Indeed, early modern architecture had very little use for perspective in the construction of buildings.
Alberti was explicit about its place in architectural practice:. Most Netherlandish layouts that survive today from the 48 Unbuilt architecture in the world of things sixteenth century are ichnographic, in ground plan, since scenographia was notoriously prone to inaccuracies.
While perspectival images could describe the appearance of a built or potential building, they famously lacked the structural precision needed to guide on-site work. But by the sixteenth century, as we will see in Chapter 5, perspective had become a myriad of pictorial practices, characterized largely by an unexpected materiality. Just as Sartre once said of color, there can be no perspective, except that of something.
In the 20 etchings published by Cock, narrow basilicas and whimsical loggia level themselves at the viewer. The vanishing points are off-center; the architecture, encrusted with queer forms, repudiates any claims to clarity in order to foreground the partiality of a single viewpoint. In one sheet Figure 1. Very few specifics about the settings are provided that would help build the structures depicted. Perspective, for Vredeman, becomes the component of a pattern book, an attenuated species of ornament.
It was their seriality that remained vital: Dramatic, Satyric, the Scenographiae sheets exploded the single viewpoint of perspective, relentlessly and Comic Scenes in fol. As prints, objects of private contemplation, edition of the etchings wilfully diffused their origins in the Vitriuvius translation. As Roland Barthes Vitruvius. Perspectival compositions, by contrast, allegedly define a contiguity with the viewer through the fictional extension of space.
They ask for conversation. Yet the staffage, the figures of Christ, Mary, Martha, and the disciples, were not painted by Vredeman. As with most of his panels from the s, they were probably the work of another artist, in this case Gillis Mostaert, an artist from the village of Hulst. The practice of collaboration was not just a division of labor. Vredeman relied upon it throughout his career as a painter, and it would come to dominate the architectural specialty he established, whether at the behest of dealers or of particular patrons.
The architectural specialty relied upon a division of labor to impart both financial worth and narrative sense. The visual elements of the Hampton Court picture vault, doorway, Christ stand, like the artists who painted them Vredeman, Mostaert , not as alternative poles, but as amplifications of one another; exchange between them mirrors the beholder doing the same.
The result of this polyphony, however, is not simply some happy pluralism of viewing for the single viewer. In perspective the architecture sheds all claims to be a functional window.
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Mary and Martha declares itself a contemporary translation of a Biblical event, but one torn between the past and present: a stranger in the house of the here-and-now. Cicero considered inventio the first stage in the preparation of a rhetorical discourse, important not simply as an imaginative activity, but as the process of unearthing worthy topics to explore.
It was this selecting of subject which preceded ordinatie, or arrangement. Invention was in both cases wholly imbricated with execution and rhetorical flourish. The achievements of selecting and giving form to an invention intimates the kind of dynamism at stake when trying to isolate artistic originality in early modern architecture. These were traditions recoupable only in versions—Italian as well as ostensibly Dutch. Few sites were to be as nurturing of such maneuvers as Antwerp, to which Vredeman now turned.
Woodcut, H. Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. Antwerp was like a world, one could lie concealed there without going outside it. The decrepit ruin is a danger to its users, far more than one would expect. This building was to be constructed according to designs patronen the city had commissioned from local artists years before. In order that royal representatives in Brussels could better understand the proposal, the magistrates even included copies of the plan with their complaint. When Hans Vredeman de Vries depicted the building around Figure 2. The woodcut included verses eulogizing the winning project, fusing visual and textual entreaties: Voy donc, amy Lecteur, une chose qui semble Impossible estre, mais verite, si assemble.
Antwerp, for all its affluence, remained a city in the Holy Roman Empire, and few viewers would have regarded the brashness of its architecture along with its representations as ideologically inert. Vredeman belonged to a chamber of rhetoric in Antwerp in the s, and of course, worked as a print designer and painter for Hieronymus Cock and Gerard de Jode between short trips away after and His rhetorical performances, which have hitherto received little scholarly attention, offer clues to the ways his architectures were designed.
In terms of civic space, as Michel de Certeau once argued, the seemingly mundane practices of everyday urban life—repetitive, bodily, patterned—while increasingly subject to centralized control in early modern capitalism, remained under market conditions the sole places for creative appropriation of space— fugitive sites for the making of individual meaning, potential resistance, and unpredictability.
As in his town hall woodcut, Vredeman saw the city as a landscape, not a model for a place but a place unto itself. Around , however, English cloth merchants, banned from rival markets in Bruges and Ghent, became attracted to these fairs for the contacts they allowed with bankers from the Rhineland and southern Germany. By , these bankers, and the precious metals they controlled, attracted a third group of individuals—Portuguese merchants, eager to obtain the silver and copper needed to maintain their spice trade in West Africa and southern Asia.
Like those cities, Antwerp rapidly developed an independent banking industry, eventually lending money to Emperor Charles V and lesser heads of state at staggering rates of interest. It was not just merchants from England, Portugal, and German lands who settled in the city to take part in these soon-permanent markets, but local craftsmen from smaller towns who supplied the retail, transport, and service infrastructure they required. This infrastructure, in turn, provided an impetus for broadening extant trade fairs dealing in textiles and handcrafts, which, finally, led to an increasingly sophisticated commerce in high-end luxury goods aimed at the New World and the European hinterlands—paintings, jewelry, clothing, books, and prints.
In , there were around 55, people living inside the city walls, where a century earlier there had been less than 20, By , the number of citizens reached ,, a number paralleled north of the Alps only by Paris. Antwerp is not just the richest emporium in Brabant but in the whole world! The city magistrates, or wethouders, went to great lengths to insure that merchants and financiers of any national or religious stripe were not harassed by the Spanish authorities, and that civic privileges were respected at all costs. This was a key reason why the city became so attractive to legions of wealthy English, Italians, Germans, Danes, and Poles who settled there, and it surely influenced the decision of less-prosperous, skilled men and women from the Flemish countryside to emigrate as 60 Antwerp: the city rehearsed well.
Lutheranism had arrived in the city through German merchants in the s, and 2. Prentenkabinet, Antwerp. Evangelicals often took advantage of the disorder to preach political resistance rooted in scripture. Banishments, imprisonments, and executions were increasingly directed against openly practicing Protestants. Throughout the s the government launched initiatives to centralize government in the Netherlands and to suppress heresy, founding new dioceses and outlawing any dissident faiths altogether. In , the town hall was burned by rampaging unpaid Spanish troops, a blatant symbol of the compromised state of civic security that had developed over the course of mere decades.
Even after the confessionally aligned destruction and political violence, immigrants continued to be attracted to Antwerp in droves. Any walled city, even a chaotic one, seems to have been preferable to a countryside riddled with bandits and rogue soldiers. Vredeman was occupying a house on the Everdijstraat by the s, but, interestingly, he does not appear anywhere in the records of the St Lucasgild. Antwerp sided with the Protestant North in the rebellion against Spain, and instated a Calvinist government between and After Floris quit the city in , the painters Hendrick van Steenwyck the Elder and Maarten van Valkenborch, one-time pupils of Vredeman and specialists in architectural painting, moved briefly into his vacant house, before they, too, took flight for religious reasons and went to Frankfurt.
On a stairway to the right, a fisherman and hunter, 62 Antwerp: the city rehearsed 2. Behind the tableau a Flowering, Wilt thou draw out thine Antwerp. Wilt thou not revive us again, that thy people may rejoice in thee? They were transferred by the van Doetecums, who applied their mixed process of etching and engraving to cut shallowly into the plates. In one print Figure 2. An open shop window in the foreground at right is manned by a single figure in a large house beneath a crenellated attic.